Agra Fort History


Agra Fort is believed to be built over the remains of an ancient site known as Badalgarh (The house of clouds). This belonged to the Lodi Dynasty and was conquered by Babur the Mughal Emperor in the famous battle of Panipat in 1526. Babur was the founder of the Mughal rule in India.

The history begins – Lodi dynasty: The beginning of the history of the Agra Fort is from the Lodi dynasty. After the death of Sikandar Lodi in 1517, his son Ibrahim Lodi held the fort. That time the fort was built of bricks.

Agra fort captured – Mughal dynasty: In the famous battle of Panipat in 1526 Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed by Babur, the founder of the Mughal rule in India.

Babur sent his son Humayun to Agra and he captured the fort and seized a vast treasure. The famous diamond ‘Kohinoor’ was one of these treasures. Humayum was coronated here in 1530 A.D.

Agra fort occupied – Sur dynasty: Humayun was defeated in another war with Sher Shah Suri from the Sur dynasty and he occupied the fort of Agra. Sher Shah Suri repaired Badalgarh and the Sur dynasty reigned there until 1655 A.D.

Agra fort re-captured – Mughal dynasty: In 1555 A.D the fort was recaptured by Humayun and the power came in the hands of the Mughal dynasty. After the death of Humayun, his son Akbar made Agra his capital and named it ‘Akbarabad’.

Construction of Agra Fort begins: In 1565 A.D. Badalgarh was demolished and the construction of the famous ‘Red Fort’ or the ‘Agra Fort’ began.

The construction done by:
Akbar: The Emperor Akbar started the construction of the Agra Fort with red sand stone. The ramparts and buildings of the fort were constructed by him in eight years from 1565 A.D. to 1573 A.D.

Jahangir: Akbar’s son Jahangir mostly resided at Lahore and in Kashmir. He regularly visited Agra and lived in the fort. He used black onyx imported from Belgium for the Takht-i-Jahangir meaning the ‘throne of Jahangir’ in Agra Fort. Though the throne was moved from Allahabad it remained here as one of the constructions of the Emperor.

Shah Jahan: Shah Jahan, the son of Jahangir was fond of white and pure marble. Shah Jahan had transferred his capital to Delhi in 1648 A.D. Later, he continued to live here in the Agra Fort. Shah Jahan replaced the red sand stone structures with beautiful marble with inlay work on it.

Aurangzeb: Aurangzeb house arrested his father Shah Jahan until 1666 A.D. when he died. Aurangzeb remained busy with the Deccan conflicts and visited the Agra Fort from time to time. He constructed the moats around the Agra Fort.

Agra Fort captured – British: After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 A.D., Agra remained politically unstable. Shivaji, the great Maratha has occupied it later. It was intermittently held by Jats and Marathas. Finally, the British captured it from the Marathas in 1803 A.D.

Agra Fort – Indian Government: India got freedom in the year 1947 A.D. from the British and since then the Agra Fort is under the care of Indian government. Renovation is taking place continuously to protect and maintain the monument since then.

Agra Fort – The UNESCO World Heritage monument: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on 16 November 1945. The Agra Fort is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.



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